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# OpenGL Notes 2

A few notes related to Shader and OpenGL in general.

## glVertexAttribPointer()'s last parameter pointer

Function prototype as seen from man page is

void glVertexAttribPointer(GLuint index, GLint size, GLenum type, GLboolean normalized, GLsizei stride, const GLvoid * pointer);

Man page describes this function's parameter as

Specifies a offset of the first component of the first generic vertex attribute in the array in the data store of the buffer currently bound to the GL_ARRAY_BUFFER target. The initial value is 0..

The interesting thing is its parameter type which is const GLvoid * pointer. Why it needs to be opaque pointer as it just needs to be offset integer? The answer involves OpenGL's history of this function variant. In the past before VBOs, OpenGL still uses plain old vertex arrays which is called Client-side Vertex Arrays. Such data reside in RAM, and need to be sent to GPU every time it wants to render.

Consider the following example code as seen from the URL linked above.

glEnableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY);
glVertexPointer(3, GL_FLOAT, sizeof(MyVertex), &vertex[0].x);
glEnableClientState(GL_NORMAL_ARRAY);
glNormalPointer(GL_FLOAT, sizeof(MyVertex), &vertex[0].nx);
glClientActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0);
glEnableClientState(GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY);
glTexCoordPointer(2, GL_FLOAT, sizeof(MyVertex), &vertex[0].s0);
glClientActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE1);
glEnableClientState(GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY);
glTexCoordPointer(2, GL_FLOAT, sizeof(MyVertex), &vertex[0].s1);
glClientActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE2);
glEnableClientState(GL_TEXTURE_COORD_ARRAY);
glTexCoordPointer(2, GL_FLOAT, sizeof(MyVertex), &vertex[0].s2);

The last parameter of glVertexPointer() is address, thus it's proper and correct to use opaque pointer. Then time passes gl...Pointer() evolves to support working with VBOs, its last parameter is repurposed to be used to pass an integer offset.

## glShaderSource()'s 3rd parameter of string

Function prototype as seen from man page is

void glShaderSource(GLuint shader, GLsizei count, const GLchar **string, const GLint *length);

Interesting thing is its 3rd parameter type which is const GLchar **string. Why it needs to be double pointer to GLchar? This answer on SO explains at best to its design and purpose. In short, glShaderSource() sees it in concept of a file. Each string can represent content of one file, so we could implicitly concatenate source string from different files together into 1 shader object.

Great example taken from such linked URL above.

std::string v = "#version 150\n";
std::string c = ReadTextFile("common.glsl"); // read a string with the file contents
std::string s = ReadTextFile("mesh.vert");   // same here

GLchar const* files[] = { v.c_str(), c.c_str(), s.c_str() };
GLint lengths[]       = { v.size(),  c.size(),  s.size()  };

glShaderSource(id, 3, files, lengths);

You can see we can insert shared common GLSL source code as read from different source/file, then combine it altogether to represent 1 shader source. Flexibility I see.

## Interpolation of Fragment Colors

I came up with a simple question of why color is smoothed out over the primitive surface although we just specified only a few color (as for a triangle, 3 colors for each vertex are just needed to be filled). The thing is that this takes advantage of linear interpolation in Rasterization stage of rendering pipeline. That's why we send colors in as part of vertex attribute data to get this benefit for free.

Asides, let's say you use uniform, then you can't achieve the same smoothed-color effect only with fragment shader alone. Also it's kinda possible to define as many uniform (maximum uniform locations is GL_MAX_UNIFORM_LOCATIONS as defined in OpenGL's header file. On my integrated GPU Intel HD Graphics 4000, I inspected it to be 0x826E which is 33390.) colors for each vertex of our primitive might have but still we need to do more work on mapping a color to which vertex. This is wasteful in terms of memory on RAM, and GPU, and wasteful usage of uniform variables we could define in GLSL code.

## Resource

First published on Aug, 6, 2019

Written by Wasin Thonkaew
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